A Brief Introduction of Mycopolysaccharide Red Yeast Rice
In 1998, the FDA determined that a red yeast rice product that contained a substantial amount of monacolin-K was an unapproved new drug, not a dietary supplement. On several occasions since then, the FDA has taken action against companies selling red yeast rice products that contain more than trace amounts of monacolin-K, warning them that it is against the law to market these products as dietary supplements.
Despite the FDA actions, some red yeast rice products currently on the market in the United States may contain monacolin-K. Consumers have no way of knowing how much monacolin-K is present in most red yeast rice products, and therefore have no way of knowing whether a particular product is safe or legal. The labels on these products usually state only the amount of red yeast rice that they contain, not the amounts of monacolin-K or other monacolins.
2. Safety for Dietary Supplements
In the United States, dietary supplements containing red yeast rice have been marketed to help lower blood levels of cholesterol and related lipids. Red yeast rice products may not be safe; some may have the same side effects as certain cholesterol-lowering drugs, and some may contain a potentially harmful contaminant. The red yeast rice for dietary supplements and food products should be free of statins and citrinin.
1).The same types of side effects that can occur in patients taking lovastatin as a drug can also occur in patients who take red yeast rice products that contain monacolin-K. Potential side effects include myopathy (muscle symptoms such as pain and weakness), rhabdomyolysis (a condition in which muscle fibers break down, releasing substances into the bloodstream that can harm the kidneys) and liver toxicity. Each of these three side effects has been reported in people who were taking red yeast rice.
2).The Monacolin Red yeast rice dietary supplements should not be used while pregnant or breastfeeding.
3).Lovastatin can interact with a variety of drugs to increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis; these drugs include other cholesterol-lowering agents, certain antibiotics, the antidepressant nefazodone, drugs used to treat fungal infections, and drugs used to treat HIV infection. Red yeast rice containing monacolin-K could interact with drugs in the same way.
4).If the process of manufacturing red yeast rice is not carefully controlled, a substance called citrinin can be secreted by monascus species. Citrinin has been shown to cause kidney failure in experimental animals and genetic damage in human cells.
3. Mycopolysaccharide Red Yeast Rice Shall Be Recommended
The Mycopolysaccharide red yeast rice products do not contain citrinin and lovastatin, but they contain the amount of fungal polysaccharide.
1).Commodity Name: Mycopolysaccharide Red Yeast Rice
2).Main Specifications: Citrinin and Lovastatin free
4).Manufacturer: Foshan Zhenhong Biological Products Co., Ltd.
4. Production Technology and Usage
The composition of red yeast rice products varies depending on the monascus strains and ferment conditions used to manufacture them. The strains and conditions used to produce culinary red yeast rice differ from those used to produce functional products that are intended to lower cholesterol. Tests performed by the FDA indicate that the red yeast rice sold as a food product contains only traces of monacolin-K or none at all.
1).One is called as the Monacolin red yeast rice for functional food ingredients, which contains monacolin-k, that is specially made at conical flasks. The Monacolin red yeast rice have been sold as dietary supplements to lower blood levels of cholesterol and related lipids. The Monacolin red yeast rice products contain substances called monacolins, which are secondary metabolites secreted by the Monascus species. Monacolin-K is chemically identical to the active ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin, which is one of the drugs in the category known as statins. These drugs lower blood cholesterol levels by reducing the production of cholesterol by the liver.
2).Other is called as the Colorant red yeast rice for food additives, which contains edible pigments, that is traditionally made on ground or cement ponds. The Colorant red yeast rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck.
3).The other is called as the Mycopolysaccharide red yeast rice for health foods, dietary supplements and traditional Chinese medicines, which contains fungal polysaccharide but free of lovastatin and mycotoxin, that is naturally made in stainless fermenters. The Mycopolysaccharide red yeast rice are used in health foods, including solid beverage.
1).Do not use the Monacolin red yeast rice to replace conventional care or to postpone seeing your health care provider about a health problem.
2).Do not use the Monacolin red yeast rice dietary supplements if you are pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or nursing a child. If you are considering giving a child the red yeast rice dietary supplements, it is especially important to consult the child’s health care provider.
3).Do not take the Monacolin red yeast rice in addition to prescription statin drugs.
4).Tell all your health care providers about any complementary health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.
6. Misinformation and Facts
Red yeast rice is a traditional Chinese culinary and medicinal product. Red yeast rice is made by fermenting rice with various strains of the Monascus specy. At present, 30 strains (e.g. Monascus purpureus, Monascus ruber, Monascus anka, Monascus pilosus, Monascus fuliginous, etc.) of the Monascus specy are found and used for producing various kinds of red yeast rice.
1).Red yeast rice was named wrong. It is not fermented by a yeast, but fermented by a fungus. Because of prior hypothesis bias, it can not be called red fungus rice. Most of red yeast rice are red, but some of red yeast rice are pink or gray.
2).Monascus was named wrong. It is not composed of one ascus, but composed of many asci. Because of prior hypothesis bias, it can not be called polyascus.
3).Some red yeast rice products contain substantial amounts of monacolin-K, which is chemically identical to the active ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. These products may lower blood cholesterol levels and can cause the same types of side effects and drug interactions as lovastatin.
4).Other red yeast rice products contain a mycotoxin called citrinin, which can cause kidney failure.
5).The other red yeast rice products do not contain monacolin-K and citrinin, but contain mycopolysaccharide. It is known that these products have an immunostimulant effect. Fungal polysaccharides display avariety of important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immune- stimulating activities.
6).Consumers have no way of knowing how much monacolin-K is present in most red yeast rice products. The labels on these products usually state only the amount of red yeast rice that they contain, not the amount of monacolin-K.
7).The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that red yeast rice products that contain more than trace amounts of monacolin-K are unapproved new drugs and cannot be sold legally as dietary supplements.
Reviewed and Summarized by Hojin JEONG on October 26, 2019